Date of publication: 2017-08-27 04:27
Figure shows the movement of protons down their concentration gradient. They can only travel through the inner membrane via ATP synthase and as they do so they release energy. This energy is used by ATP synthase to convert ADP into ATP.
79. Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an inability to digest starch. This disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition.
Mitochondria play host to one of the most important processes in your body: cellular respiration. Taking in glucose and oxygen, mitochondria produce energy, which they capture and package as energy-rich molecules of ATP. This video describes the structure and functions that give mitochondria their nickname: the powerhouses of the cell.
86. Scientists recently have proposed a reorganization of the phylogenetic system of classification to include the domain, a new taxonomic category higher (more inclusive) than the Kingdom category, as shown in the following diagram.
59. Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to the atmosphere. Explain the mechanisms involved in conducting water through these tissues.
68. Describe the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Trace these elements from the point of their release from a decaying animal to their incorporation into a living animal.
8. After an enzyme is mixed with its substrate, the amount of product formed is determined at 65-second intervals for 6 minute. Data from this experiment are shown below:
Step 6 - In the first stage of the Krebs cycle, the acetyl group from acetyl CoA is transferred to a four carbon compound. This forms a six carbon compound.
69. Discuss Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment. Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws.
57. Describe the structure of a bean seed and discuss its germination to the seedling stage. Include in your essay hormonal controls, structural changes, and tissue differentiation.
76. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process.
The protons then move down the concentration gradient from the space between the inner and outer membranes back into the matrix. However, they can only move back across via an enzyme embedded in the inner membrane. This enzyme is called ATP synthase. The protons are transported back into the matrix through the channels of ATP synthase and as they do so they release energy. This energy is then used by ATP synthase to convert ADP into ATP. Since the electrons come from previous oxidation reactions of cell respiration and the ATP synthase catalyses the phosphorylation of ADP into ATP, this process is called oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmosis is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation to work.