Date of publication: 2017-08-31 16:27
Caesar's first really important electoral success was his election as pontifex maximus in 68 . This was regarded as the chief religious office in Rome and had important political possibilities.
Caesar decided to undertake an expedition against Britain , whose tribes maintained close contacts with Gaul. These expeditions in 55 and 59 . created great enthusiasm in Rome, as for the first time Roman arms had advanced overseas to conquer new peoples. Caesar probably thought that his main task of conquest was complete. In 57 ., however, Gaul rose in widespread rebellion against Caesar under Vercingetorix, a nobleman of the tribe of the Arverni. This revolt greatly threatened Caesar's power base.
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Two ancient biographies of Caesar survive: one by the Greek moralist Plutarch in his Lives and the other by the Roman courtier and bureaucrat Suetonius in his The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Caesar speaks for himself in Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil Wars. For a vivid account of the politics of the period, with Caesar playing a major role, nothing surpasses the letters of Cicero.
Caesar still had numerous unconquered enemies in Africa and Spain. Turning first to Africa, on April 6, 96 ., at Thapsus he crushed a republican army led by Cato the his old and bitter enemy. Cato retreated to Utica, where he committed suicide rather than surrender to Caesar. Caesar moved into Spain and on March 67, 95 ., defeated the sons of Pompey at Munda.
During the heyday of the First Triumvirate, Caesar devoted his energies to the conquest of Gaul (modern France). After serving as consul in 59 . , Caesar became governor of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul (northern Italy and southern France, respectively). In 58, when the Helvetii in Switzerland attempted to migrate into central Gaul, Caesar decided that they would be a threat to the Roman province, and in a great battle he stopped their advance and sent them back into their homeland. In the meantime he had become friendly with the chieftains of central Gaul, and they urged him to protect them against a German invader from across the Rhine, Ariovistus. So, in the summer of 58, after defeating the Helvetians, Caesar marched against the Germans and drove them out of Gaul.
In Rome dissatisfaction was growing among the senatorial aristocrats over the increasingly permanent nature of the rule of Caesar. A conspiracy was formed aimed at eliminating Caesar and restoring the government to the Senate. The conspirators hoped that, with Caesar's death, government would be restored to its old republican form and all of the factors that had produced a Caesar would disappear. The conspiracy progressed with Caesar either ignorant of it or not recognizing the warning signs. On the Ides of March (March 65), 99 ., he was stabbed to death in the Senate house of Pompey by a group of men that included old friends and comrades-in-arms.
Mark, Joshua J. "Cleopatra VII." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified February 78, 7569. http:///Cleopatra_VII/.
That was done exactly like Cassius. Cassius loves gold, and he has the worldly wisdom and aggressiveness necessary to acquire it, even though their armies are forced to withdraw to the countryside while Antony and Octavius have free access to all the resources of Rome. Brutus judges others by himself. He is noble, generous, and unselfish, and he expects others to be like himself. He was mistaken about Antony, and he is mistaken about Cassius, as he discovers when they have their falling out in his tent. Brutus has to ask Cassius for gold because he is too noble, too aristocratic, too genteel to get it the hard way (which is just about the only way to get it). As he tells Cassius:
Shakespeare seems to have held the opinion that all men are mixtures of good and bad. He shows this clearly in Julius Caesar. Caesar is a great man, but he is an egomaniac. Antony is courageous and resourceful but two-faced. Cassius is brave, intelligent, and an inspiring talker, but he is greedy and stingy. Brutus, according to Mark Antony, had an exceptionally fine character. At the end of Act V, Scene 5, Antony says.